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Soon to come..

  • Central role of inflammatory response in COVID-19 and toxicology: lessons learnt from Adverse Outcome Pathway networks. Halappanavar et al.

  • Representing different stressors in the stressor-agnostic AOP framework.

  • A systematic scoping review of the neurological effects of COVID-19. Hogberg et al.


How to Catalyze a Collaboration. Carusi A, Clerbaux LA, Wittwehr C. Issues in Science and Technology 39, no. 4 (Summer 2023): 46–50. doi:

CIAO: a living experiment in interdisciplinary large-scale collaboration facilitated by the Adverse Outcome Pathway framework. Carusi A, Filipovska J, Wittwehr C, Clerbaux LA. Frontiers in Public Health. 2023, doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1212544

Why adverse outcome pathways need to be FAIR. Wittwehr C, Clerbaux LA, Edwards S, Angrish M, Mortensen H, Carusi A, Gromelski M, Lekka E, Virvilis V, Martens M, Bonino da Silva Santos LO, Nymark P. . ALTEX. 2023 Aug 1. doi: 10.14573/altex.2307131. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37528748.

The Adverse Outcome Pathway framework applied to Neurological Symptoms of COVID-19. Hogberg HT, Lam A, Ohayon E, Shahbaz MA, Clerbaux LA, Bal-Price A, Concha R, de Bernardi F, Edrosa E, Hargreaves AJ, Kanniinen KM, Munoz A, Saravana S, Garcia-Reyero N, Wittwehr C, Sachana M. Cells. October 2022, 28;11(21):3411doi: 10.3390/cells11213411

Gut as an Alternative Entry Route for SARS-CoV-2: Current Evidence and Uncertainties of Productive Enteric Infection in COVID-19. Clerbaux LA, Mayasich SA, Muñoz A, Soares H, Petrillo M, Albertini MC, Lanthier N, Grenga L, Amorim MJ. J.Clin.Med. September 2022, 11(29) 5691 doi: 10.3390/jcm11195691


Mechanistic Understanding of the Olfactory Neuroepithelium Involvement Leading to Short-Term Anosmia in COVID-19 Using the Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework. Shahbaz MA*, De Bernardi F*, Alatalo A, Sachana M, Clerbaux LA, Muñoz A, Parvatam S, Landesmann B, Kanninen KM, Coecke S. Cells. September 2022 11(19). doi: 10.3390/cells11193027

Mechanisms Leading to Gut Dysbiosis in COVID-19: Current Evidence and Uncertainties based on Adverse Outcome Pathways. Clerbaux LA, Fillipovska, Muñoz A, Petrillo M, Coecke S, Amorim MJ, Grenga L. J.Clin.Med. September 2022, 11(18) 5400 doi: 10.3390/jcm11185400


Factors Modulating COVID-19: A Mechanistic Understanding Based on the Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework. Clerbaux LA, Albertini MC, Amigó N, Beronius A; Bezemer GFG; Coecke S; Daskalopoulos EP, Del Giudice G, Greco D, Grenga L, Mantovani A, Muñoz A, Omeragic E, Parissis N; Petrillo M; Saarimäki LA; Soares H; Sullivan K, Landesmann B. J.Clin.Med. July 2022, 11,4464 doi: 10.3390/jcm11154464

Effects of spike protein and toxin-like peptides found in COVID-19 patients on human 3D neuronal/glial model undergoing differentiation: Possible implications for SARS-CoV-2 impact on brain development. Pistollato F, Petrillo M, Clerbaux LA, Leoni G, Ponti J, Bogni A, Brogna C, Cristoni S, Sanges R, Mendoza-de Gyves E, Fabbri M, Querci M, Soares H, Munoz A, Whelan M, Van de Eede G. Reprod Toxicol. May 2022;111:34-48. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2022.04.011

COVID-19 through Adverse Outcome Pathways: Building networks to better understand the disease – 3rd CIAO AOP Design Workshop. Clerbaux LA, Amigó N, Amorim, MJ, Bal-Price A, Batista Leite S, Beronius A, Bezemer GFG, Bostroem AC, Carusi A, Coecke S, Concha R, Daskalopoulos, EP, Debernardi F, Edrosa E, Edwards SW, Filipovska J, Garcia-Reyero N, Gavins, FNE, Halappanavar S, Hargreaves, AJ, Hogberg HT, Huynh MT, Jacobson D, Josephs-Spaulding J, Kim, YJ, Kong, HJ, Krebs, CE, Lam A, Landesmann B, Layton A, Lee YO, Macmillan DS, Mantovani A, Margiotta-Casaluci L, Martens, M., Masereeuw R, Mayasich SA, Mei, LM, Mortensen H, Munoz Pineiro A, Nymark P, Ohayon E, Ojasi J, Paini A, Parissis, N., Parvatam S, Pistollato F, Sachana M, Sørli JB, Sullivan KM, Sund J, Tanabe S, Tsaioun K, Vinken M, Viviani L, Waspe J, Willett,C and Wittwehr C. Altex, Alternatives to animal experimentation. January 2022. doi: 10.14573/altex.2112161

COVID-19 and the liver: an adverse outcome pathway perspective. Vinken M. Toxicology, March 2021. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2021.152765

Understanding COVID-19 through adverse outcome pathways – 2nd CIAO AOP Design Workshop. Wittwehr C, Amorim MJ, Clerbaux LA, Krebs CE, Landesmann B, Macmillan DS, Nymark P, Ram R, Garcia-Reyero N, Sachana M, Sullivan K, Sund J, Willett C. Altex, Alternatives to animal experimentation. March 2021. doi: 10.14573/altex.2102221

Systematic organization of COVID-19 data supported by the Adverse Outcome Pathway framework. Nymark P, Sachana M, Batista-Leite S, Sund J, Krebs CE, Sullivan K, Edwards S, Viviani L, Willett K, Landesmann B, Wittwehr C. Front. Public Health, April 2021. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.638605

Advanced Adverse Outcome Pathways Potentially Bridging Pathogenesis of COVID-19. Young Jun Kim, Chang Gyun Park, Sang Rak Lim, In Dong Jun, Yong Oh Lee. Preprints. January 2021, doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0065.v1



On December 2022, Brigitte Landesmann presented the input of CIAO regarding Modulating Factors during the OECD online webinar highlighting the new features of the AOP-Wiki.

On November 2022, Laure-Alix Clerbaux presented the COVID-19 related gut AOPs as well as the potental impact of SARS-CoV-2 Spike proteins to brain development at the ESTIV congress in Barcelona.


On November 28 2022, Laure-Alix Clerbaux presented the CIAO project as an insipirational interdisciplinary successfull collaborative project at the Karolinska Institute.

On June 16 2022, Katya Tsaioun presented a masterclass on how automation and intelligent workflows enabled the CIAO Literature Review group to systematically map evidence to model the neurological effects of COVID-19.


On June 9 2022, the CIAO project was presented

- by Penny Nymark at the Webinar: Practical applications of AOPs from the Swedish 3R center,

- by Steve Edwards at the Summer School of Innovative Approaches in Science organised by PCRM in North Carolina.

On May 16 2022, the CIAO project was presented by Laure-Alix Clerbaux at the first DRAGON Spotlight Session. DRAGON stand for The RapiD and SecuRe AI enhAnced DiaGnosis, Precision Medicine and Patient EmpOwerment Centered Decision Support System for Coronavirus PaNdemics).


On April 5 2022, the work of the Modulating Factors group "Factors modulating the clinical outcomes of COVID-19: a mechanistic understanding based on the AOP" was presented as a recorded poster by Laure-Alix Clerbaux at the online Nature conferences "Understanding COVID-19 to prepare for the Next Pandemic".

On March 2022, the work of the Literature Review group "A systematic Review of COVID-19 Literature: Neurological Effects and SARS-CoV-2" was presented as a poster by Donna MacMillan at the 2022 Society of Toxicology (SOT) annual meeting and ToxExpo in San Diego.


In February 2022, the CIAO project and CIAO AOPs were presented at the 1st AOP Community of Practice Symposium SAAOP:

AOP392 - Development of a Hub Adverse Outcome Pathway for Hyperinflammation by Liang Mei,

KER2311 - KER development vignette on ACE2 dysregulation by SARS-CoV-2 protein by Julija Filipovska,

CIAO project - AOP Developer experience by Laure-Alix Clerbaux

AOP379 leading to thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation by Shihori Tanabe.

On September 27 (2021) the CIAO project was presented by Laure-Alix Clerbaux at the 3Rs training series, organized by the Animal Protection Commissioner of Berlin and the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT).


On September 23, the CIAO project was presented by Laure-Alix Clerbaux at the online MPSCoRe webinar.


On July 21, the CIAO project was presented by Maria Joao Amorim at the online ASCCT/ESTIV webinar: Bridging toxicology and research: COVID-19 initiatives.


On June 14, the CIAO project was presented by Laure-Alix Clerbaux at the online Workshop: Methods and models in Biomedical Sciences: Building bridges.

On May 17, the CIAO project was presented by Penny Nymark at the 2021 edition of the JRC Virtual Summer School on Non-animal Approaches in Science.

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