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Building AOPs modelling COVID-19 pathogenesis was a collaborative interdisciplinary effort. Scientists regularly met within working groups based on their interest and expertise. Besides those regular working group meetings, CIAO workshops were organised at least twice a year to gather all the knowledge community together, share the outputs developed so far and establish the future steps.

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8-9 February 2023 - Final online CIAO Workshop.


Welcome. Watch here.

   Clemens Wittwehr & Laure-Alix Clerbaux, Joint Researrch Centre, European Commission, Italy.

AOPs to model infection, inflammation and coagulation in COVID-19. Watch here.

Inflammatory response in COVID (AOP392/468): re-use of knowledge. Penny Nymark, Karolinska Institute, Sweden & Holly Mortensen, US EPA, USA.

Hub AOP (AOP430) to model viral infection: entry to transmission. Sally Mayasich, University of Wisconsin-US EPA, USA.

Binding to ACE2 leading to thrombosis (AOP379). Shihori Tanabe, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan.

Thromboinflammation (AOP412): linking coagulation and inflammation. Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, King’s College London, UK & Felicity N.E. Gavins,

                                                                                                                            Brunel University London, UK

Binding to ACE2 leading to lung fibrosis via RAS imbalance (AOP319). Ian Choi & Young Jun Kim, KIST Europe, Republica of Korea.

AOPs applied to neurological symptoms in COVID-19. Watch here.

AOPs applied to neurological outcomes in COVID-19. Magda Sachana, OECD, France & Helena Hogberg, NIEHS, USA.

Mechanistic understanding of short-term anosmia in COVID-19 (AOP394). Muhammad Ali Shahbaz, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.

Clinicians’ views on AOPs. Francesca de Bernardi, Otorhinolaryngology, Varese Hospital, Italy.
DNT AOPs to study potential SARS-CoV-2 effects on brain development. Francesca Pistollato & Laure-Alix Clerbaux, EU Joint Research Centre.

AOPs to help understand disease complexity and heterogeneity in clinical outcomes. Watch here.

Gut implications in COVID-19 (AOP422): what we learned from AOPs. Laure-Alix Clerbaux, EU Joint Research Centre, Italy.
Gut microbiota: an outcome (AOP428) and a risk factor. Lucia Grenga, Université Paris-Saclay, France.
Modulating factors in COVID-19: a mechanistic understanding via AOPs. Brigitte Landesmann, EU Joint Research Centre, Italy.

Lipid signature: biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. Núria Amigó, Biosfer Teslab, Spain.

Immune status: biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. Helena Soares, Nova Medical School, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.

Combining COVID-19 AOPs and mathematical models. Yang Huan, EqsLABS GmbH, Germany & Laure-Alix Clerbaux, EU Joint Research Centre.

One Health applied to COVID-19 and Pandemic Prevention. Daniel Jacobson, Oak Ridge National Institute, USA.


AOP acting as a conceptual mediator across disciplines. Watch here.

Re-use of an AOP leading to decreased lung function (AOP302). Jorid B. Sørli, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark

Lessons learnt for toxicology from the COVID-19 AOP Network. Sabina Halappanavar, Health Canada, Canada & Penny Nymark, KI, Sweden

Increased interoperability between AOP-Wiki and WikiPathways. Marvin Martens, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

CIAO: a living experiment of interdisciplinary collaboration via AOPs. Annamaria Carusi, Interchange Research, UK.

CIAO legacy to the AOP framework and the AOP-Wiki. Watch here (available soon)

A virus as an AOP stressor. Maria Joao Amorim, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Portugal.

A systematic scoping review of the neurological effects of COVID-19. Donna Macmillan, HSI, UK.

Beneficial Outcome Pathway. Gillina Bezemer, Impact Station & Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Are AOPs FAIR enough? Clemens Wittwehr, EU Joint Research Centre, Italy.
Bridging to established terminologies in the AOP-Wiki: why and how. Eftychia Lekka & Vassilis Virvilis, Biovista, Greece.
CIAO recommendation for AOP-Wiki and coming features. Stephen Edwards, RTI International, USA.

Lessons learnt from CIAO. Laure-Alix Clerbaux, EU Joint Research Centre, Italy.


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Summer 2022 - CIAO seminars

A series of CIAO seminars were held suring the summer on COVID-19 and Maternal Immunity with Dr Soares,

Long Covid with Dr Iwasaki & Dr Putrino and Vaccination with Pr. Krammer.

Recordings can be watched on our YouTube channel

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9-10 March 2022 - 5th online CIAO AOP Workshop.

CIAO scientists met to further work together toward harmonisation of the 18 COVID-19 AOPs developed within the project.

Work was achieved regarding harmonization to increase interoperability, to build a comprehensive network and to exploit at best the re-use principle of the AOP framework. The progress and updates from the different groups were presented and the directions to take for this year and beyond were explored together.

You can find the Workshop Report here.

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15-16 September 2021 - 4th online CIAO AOP Workshop.

Scientists met to build further the COVID-19 AOP network based on the 15 AOPs related to COVID-19 already developed within the project.

Challenges regarding the ontology harmonisation, level of details required or integration of the factors modulating the course of the disease into the AOP framework were also discussed.

You can find the Workshop Report here.

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28-29 April 2021 - 3rd online CIAO COVID-19 AOP Workshop.

50 scientists met for 2 half-days to build networks to better understand COVID-19. You can find a Workshop Report here.

The working groups remain the same (see diagram below). If you want to participate to one of these working groups, do not hesitate to contact us.

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27-28 January 2021 - 2nd online CIAO COVID-19 AOP Workshop.

55 experts came together over 2 half days and identified 74 Key Events and 13 Adverse Outcome Pathways (see diagram).

You can find a Workshop Report here.

7 working groups were formed:

Hub - Lung - Other organs - Neuro - Modulating factors - Multiscale impact - Systematic Literature Review group.

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1-2 October 2020 - 1st online CIAO COVID-19 AOP Workshop. 

More than 40 international scientific experts spent 2 half days to assemble first stable and agreed draft AOPs depicting COVID-19 pathogenesis.

Following that, and over a time period of 3 months, 5 working groups (see diagram) were busy with the further elaboration of COVID-19 AOP-related Key Events in these COVID-19 AOPs. 

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